Hominidae II (Humans)

Orrorin tugenensis 6 mya. Ardipithecus ramidus 4. Australopithecus anamensis 4. Australopithecus afarensis 3. Kenyanthropus platyops 3. Australopithecus africanus 3 to 2 mya. Australopithecus aethiopicus 2. Australopithecus garhi 2. Australopithecus boisei 2.

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These features are considered adaptations to a life lived on the ground, indicating the loss of earlier tree-climbing adaptations, with the ability to walk and possibly run long distances. Compared with earlier fossil humans, note the expanded braincase relative to the size of the face. Microscopic study of the teeth indicates that he grew up at a growth rate similar to that of a great ape.

Esr dating to and habitats. Her bone structure indicates the story of the first evolved with a hypothetical model created to date to walk upright, but shows some.

Either your web browser doesn’t support Javascript or it is currently turned off. In the latter case, please turn on Javascript support in your web browser and reload this page. The following information was supplied regarding data availability:. Their accession numbers are available in the Supplemental File. We review genealogical relationships, biogeographic patterns and broad historical drivers of speciation within the Bathyergidae, a group of endemic African rodents, as well as identify key taxa which need further research.

We sourced comparable cytochrome b sequence data comparable data available for all members for the Family and geographic information for all six genera of the African subterranean rodent. This information was combined into the most comprehensive and geographically representative evolutionary study for the Bathyergidae to date. Species richness within the Bathyergidae appears to be underestimated, with undescribed taxa in five of the six genera.

Biogeographic patterns suggest large historical distributions, which were repeatedly fragmented by major landscape changes especially rifting, uplift and drainage evolution since the Miocene. Aside from vicariant events, other factors ecological specialization, population-level responses and climatic change may have been instrumental in driving divergences in the Bathyergidae. As such, adaptive differences may exist among both populations and species across their discrete ranges, driving independent evolutionary trajectories among taxa.

In addition, highly fragmented distributions of divergent and often relict lineages indicates the possibility of narrow endemics restricted to diminishing suitable habitats. From this, it is clear that a systematic revision of the Bathyergidae is necessary; such a revision should include comprehensive sampling of all putative taxa, the addition of genomic information to assess adaptive differences, as well as ecological information.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND HUMAN EVOLUTION

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Until some 2 Mya hominids remained only in tropical habitats after which they Eurasia through Northeast Africa, the Middle East, and the Caucasus. also date to as early as Mya (Klein ). ( Mya) are found not just along the southern rim of dates and geographic locations of these sites show that.

The boy was no older than 9 when he perished by the swampy shores of the lake. After death, his slender, long-limbed body sank into the mud of the lake shallows. His bones fossilized and lay undisturbed for 1. In the s, fossil hunter Kimoya Kimeu, working on the western shore of Lake Turkana, Kenya, glimpsed a dark colored piece of bone eroding in a hillside. Now known as Nariokotome Boy, after the nearby lake village, the skeleton has provided a wealth of information about the early evolution of our own genus, Homo see Figure Today, a stone monument with an inscription in three languages—English, Swahili, and the local Turkana language—marks the site of this momentous fossil discovery.

Figure This is the most complete hominin fossil from this time period ever found. The previous chapter described our oldest human ancestors, primarily members of the genus Australopithecus who lived between 2 million and 4 million years ago. This chapter introduces the earliest members of the genus Homo , focusing on the species Homo habilis and Homo erectus.

Since our discipline is fundamentally concerned with what makes us human, defining our own genus takes on special significance for anthropologists. The genus is the next level up from species in the classification system originally devised by Carolus Linnaeus. In the present-day classification, the apes and monster people have long been removed, and our species, Homo sapiens , remains as its only living representative. When grouping species into a common genus, biologists will consider criteria such as physical characteristics morphology , evidence of recent common ancestry, and adaptive strategy use of the environment.

Investigation

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a more frequent use of tools for the digging and processing of roots and tubers. the wear patterns on ancient tools are similar to those that can be replicated experimentally.

The study of the evolution of the human species has been characterized by astounding discoveries, immense public interest and a copious amount of controversy. However, the history of paleoanthropological discourse, while interesting, is beyond the scope of this investigation but see Bowman-Kruhm ; Cartmill et al. The purpose of this investigation is to address the morphology, taxonomy and evolution of one particular group of hominids, the australopithecines.

This diverse group of hominids first appeared in Africa sometime around 4. A number of species have been recovered since , and will be considered here: Australopithecus anamensis , A. Although some classify Homo habilis as an australopithecine e. Boyd and Silk, , this is not the view taken in this investigation, as the consensus in the literature describes this species within the genus Homo. Figure 1 summarizes the temporal distribution of the species discussed.

It is still common to encounter texts in which these robust species are not assigned to a separate genus e. Hlusko ; White

Phylogeny and biogeography of the African Bathyergidae: a review of patterns and processes

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Habitat All terrestrial habitats, aided by domestication of animals and plants, technology, A suite of hominin species appears in East Africa during this time range. A wide geographical range of hominins at this date indicates that intrinsic biological For example, the Ethiopian site of Bouri, dating to mya, contains the.

Biogeographic models partition ecologically similar species assemblages into discrete ecoregions. However, the history, relationship and interactions between these regions and their assemblages have rarely been explored. Here we develop a taxon-based approach that explicitly utilises molecular information to compare ecoregion history and status, which we exemplify using a continentally distributed mammalian species: the African bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus.

We reveal unprecedented levels of genetic diversity and structure in this species and show that ecoregion biogeographic history better explains the distribution of molecular variation than phenotypic similarity or geography. We extend these data to explore ecoregion connectivity, identify core habitats and infer ecological affinities from them. This analysis defines 28 key biogeographic regions for sub-Saharan Africa, and provides a valuable framework for the incorporation of genetic and biogeographic information into a more widely applicable model for the conservation of continental biodiversity.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Neither had a role in the preparation of the manuscript nor in the design, conduct or analysis of the study.

Homo erectus

Metrics details. Baboons of the genus Papio are distributed over wide ranges of Africa and even colonized parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Traditionally, five phenotypically distinct species are recognized, but recent molecular studies were not able to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, these studies revealed para- and polyphyletic hereafter paraphyletic mitochondrial clades for baboons from eastern Africa, and it was hypothesized that introgressive hybridization might have contributed substantially to their evolutionary history.

To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among baboons, we extended earlier studies by analysing the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the ‘Brown region’ from 67 specimens collected at 53 sites, which represent all species and which cover most of the baboons’ range.

The name Australopithecus translates to ‘southern ape’. Although postcranial evidence of hominids pre-dating the australopithecines is Map of Africa showing the distribution of several important sites. Type Specimen: BOU-VP​/ [Cranium] (Asfaw et al., ); Location: East Africa (Ethiopia); Age: Mya​.

The Stone Age record is longer and better documented in eastern Africa. Archaeological and fossil evidence derives particularly from sites within the Rift Valley of the region, often with secure radiometric age estimates. Putative stone tools and cutmarked bones from two Late Pliocene 3. The earliest indisputable technological traces appear in the form of simple flakes and core tools as well as surface-modified bones. It is not clear what triggered this invention, or whether there was a more rudimentary precursor to it.

Neither is it certain which hominin lineage started this technology, or if it hunted or only scavenged carcasses. Well-provenienced archaeological occurrences predating 2.

Homo habilis